Patient Information

Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

It is important to have regular checkups as prostate cancer rarely exhibits any symptoms in the early stages. Once it has reached more advanced stage it leads to some of the following symptoms:

    • Problem with urinating and need for more frequent urination especially during night
    • Presence of blood in the urine
    • In more advanced stages when the cancer spreads to the bone it causes pain in hips, spine and ribs
    • Erectile Dysfunction

It is important to remember that often benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or an enlarged prostate might lead to similar symptoms so if you experience any of these symptoms ask your physician.

Risk Factors

Several factors have been implicated for increased risk of prostate cancer with age, family history, genetics, smoking and obesity being some of the major ones.

Prostate cancer is strongly linked to age. Over 60% of cases are diagnosed in men over the age of 65 and it is very rare in men below 40 years old.

Inflammation of the Prostate (STD)
Inflammation of the prostate is believed to be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer by some researchers although it still needs to be substantiated with further research.

Family History
History of prostate cancer in someone’s family increases his chances of being affected in his lifetime. Having a male member (father or brother) approximately doubles the chances of being affected of prostate cancer.

A diet rich in red-meat and high fat dairy product is linked to slightly higher chances of prostate cancer.

Workplace Exposure
Studies have shown that men in certain professions where they are regularly exposed to toxins (Firefighters) are at higher risk for prostate cancer.

Genetic Mutations
Mutation in certain genes are known to increase chances of being affected prostate cancer. Those men who inherited mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have high risk of prostate cancer.

Men who have inherited mutations leading to Lynch Syndrome (also known as HNPCC) are at an increased risk for prostate cancer also.